Neurosurgery and neuromodulation for mental disorder: Part 2

This is the second in a two-part series, covering anterior cingulotomy and ‘reversible’ neuromodulation strategies, namely vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), and deep brain stimulation (DBS).


In the first module in this series, Neurosurgery and neuromodulation for mental disorder: Part 1, we looked at indications, patient selection, and the legislative framework.


For each intervention, the evidence supporting their use will be reviewed. Adverse effects and the current state of the technology will be covered in more detail.


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Please note: This module was last updated in 2012. Please be aware when completing the module that some of the guidance may have changed.


If you are interested in updating this material, please contact us.

If you like this module, you may also be interested in:


Neurosurgery and neuromodulation for mental disorder: Part 1

by Dr David Christmas, Professor Keith Matthews, Professor Douglas Steele and Mr Bob MacVicar


Pharmacological treatment of resistant depression – an overview

by Professor Philip J. Cowen



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We have adopted the term ‘neurosurgery for mental disorder’ (NMD) to describe a range of neurosurgical interventions for psychiatric illness. When reviewing historical developments, the term ‘psychosurgery’ is used to describe older and usually obsolete procedures.



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